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Operazione "Ferro di cavallo"?

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  • Coordinamento Romano per la Jugoslavia
    TITOLO: Pulizia etnica? Un falso! Parola di generale AUTORE: Gordon Poole TESTO: Il giornale inglese Sunday Times (2/4/2000) ha pubblicato un articolo di
    Messaggio 1 di 1 , 11 apr 2000
      TITOLO: Pulizia etnica? Un falso! Parola di generale
      AUTORE: Gordon Poole


      TESTO:
      Il giornale inglese "Sunday Times" (2/4/2000) ha pubblicato un articolo
      di
      John Goetz e Tom Walker sulle rivelazioni diHeinz Loquai, generale di
      brigata a riposo tedesco, secondo il quale non sarebbe mai esistito
      alcun
      piano jugoslavo per effettuare la pu lizia etnica della popolazione
      albanese del Kosovo. Interessantissimo, considerando che la rivelazione
      del piano, chiamato "Operazione ferro di cavallo", da parte di Joschka
      Fischer, ministro degli esteri tedesco, convinse una parte dell'opinione
      pubblica tedesca sin'allora contraria alla guerra ad accettare la
      partecipazione della Luftwaffe ai bombardamenti NATO, in contraddizione
      con la stessa costituzione della RFT. Dal 6 aprile 1999 in poi, quando
      l'esistenza del piano di Belgrado fu rivelata - i bomb ardamenti
      duravano
      già da due settimane - tutte le conferenze stampa NATO teletrasmesse,
      orchestrate dall'esperto di propaganda Jamie Shea, si riferivano
      ritualmente ad "Operation Horseshoe". Ancora nel marzo scorso James
      Rubin,
      portavoce del Dipartimento di Stato americano, ha citato quel piano in
      giustificazione dei bombardamenti.

      Heinz Loquai, invece, sostiene in un recente libro sulla guerra che il
      presunto piano sia stato creato dal nulla, sulla base di vaghi rapporti
      dei servizi segreti bulgari su normali operazioni militari.
      L'ex-generale,
      che lavora ora per l'OSCE (Organisati on for Security and Co-operation
      in
      Europe), accusa Rudolf Scharping, ministro della difesa tedesco, di
      essere
      responsabile del falso. Intervistato dal "Sunday Times" Loquai ha detto
      di
      essere giunto alla conclusione che nessuna operazione del genere sia mai
      esistita, aggiungendo che in Germania "Le critiche nei confronti della
      guerra, che erano diventate un incendio quasi incontrollabile, furono
      completamente spente grazie ad 'Operazione ferro di cavallo'".
      Indipendentemente il giornale tedesco "Die Woch e" ha sostenuto che le
      mappe, acquisite dalla NATO e diffuse dai giornali in tutto il mondo
      come
      prova dell'esistenza del piano di pulizia etnica serbo, siano state
      create
      nel quartiere generale tedesco della difesa nella città di Hardthoehe.
      In
      verità, secondo Loquai, il rapporto dei servizi segreti di Sofia
      concludeva che lo scopo delle forze armate serbe era, comprensibilmente,
      di distruggere l'UCK, non di espellere l'intera popolazione albanese,
      come
      invece hanno sostenuto sia Scharping ch e i leader della NATO.

      Secondo Diana Johnstone, in un articolo che uscirà sulla rivista
      "Giano",
      l'operazione "ferro di cavallo" è banalmente una tecnica o tattica
      insegnata in tutti i manuali militari, che prevede un attacco su tre
      lati
      contro un luogo fortificato, lasciando i l quarto lato libero per
      permettere la fuga degli occupanti, così da evitare una difesa ad
      oltranza. Essa sarebbe stata impiegata contro alcuni villaggi nel Kosovo
      che erano stati occupati dall'UCK, abbandonati dagli abitanti e
      trasformati praticamente in fortezze.

      La NATO ha respinto le affermazioni di Loquai, pur dovendo ammettere di
      non poter provare l'esistenza di un piano di pulizia etnica "Horseshoe".
      Il "Sunday Times" cita una fonte NATO, non identificata, la quale
      riferisce che: "Non c'è mai una sicurezza as soluta in queste cose.
      Tuttavia, l'idea che non ci fosse nulla di pre-arrangiato è
      anti-intuitiva. Basta pensare alla velocità con cui i serbi si sono
      mossi.
      Finché non entriamo in Belgrado e cominciamo a fare a pezzi gli archivi,
      non saremo mai sicuri - e questo non succederà mai".

      A Belgrado, fonti governative sostengono che diversi ufficiali
      dell'esercito jugoslavo hanno liquidato l'idea di un' "Operazione ferro
      di
      cavallo" come semplicemente un'invenzione della guerra propagandistica
      della NATO.

      [diffusione a cura del Tribunale Indipendente per i crimini NATO]

      ---

      New WORD Order:
      Exodus, justified, bombing

      -About the plan "potkovA"-

      Dragan Pavlovic
      Editor in chief, Dialogue, Paris

      Explaining human aggression requires knowledge, patience, and a lot of
      humanism. We are fragile, scared but very sophisticated beings. Still,
      justifying aggressivity requires much more. Let us see what is this
      more.
      The NATO intervention in Yugoslavia is being justified, by those who
      poured
      bombs, by the number of Albanian refugees (1.5 million they say), by
      the
      conditions in Kosovo prior bombing, by hidden desires of Balkan
      dictators,
      viciousness of the Serbs, etc. What will be used depends of the moment
      when
      the argument is used. Today this is the number of Albanian refugees
      (after
      the bombing!), planed action which deserved bombing before the exodus
      (German Secretary of Defense, R. Scharping). A piece of Copenhagen
      variant
      of quantum mechanics theory, I presume. Hope you follow. But let us see
      the
      facts to start with.
      First of all this was a war, and quite bad one. The victims
      (NATO
      victims) were just from one side, the other side acting from the
      distance
      with high level of security. This makes particular atmosphere and
      increases
      the urge to hide, run away. The number of displaced people is difficult
      to
      estimate, though.
      The number of refugees going south (Shiptars/Kosovo Albanians)
      is
      probably about 600 000. The number of 1.5 million, advanced recently is
      of
      course ridiculous. Total number of Shiptars (Kosovo Albanians) in
      Kosovo
      just prior the bombing was about 1.5 million. The reports from Kosovo
      during
      the NATO bombing were showing that significant number of Albanians was
      still at their homes and the numbers of how many were in refugees camps
      outside Kosovo was permanently changing from 600 000, to close to 1
      million, and sank, just before the end of bombing, to 700 000. Also
      pregnant with logic, of course. On the return of the refugees, at the
      end of
      bombing, TV reports showed this clearly, those who were awaiting
      refugees in
      the "abandoned" villages, obviously outnumber them.
      Those who were displaced north, east or west include about 200
      000
      Serbs, Romes and others. Certainly more then 1 million of population
      from
      Serbia was displaced, close to their homes, or farther to the Republika
      Srpska, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Those who obtained visas went to
      the
      other European countries or oversee. I slept more then 10 nights during
      that
      time away from my home, which is close to one military object and a
      target
      for NATO bombs. I was afraid. My family sent my niece and her father 200
      km
      away to the relatives in a quite village. This is what everyone did. Be
      away
      from the target, away from the military personnel, vehicles etc, was
      the
      thought which persisted in the minds of people during that time. The
      explosions were terrifying, although in a big city they were often at
      considerable distance and close just for those living in the
      neighborhood of
      the particular target. In a small city all explosions were close. I
      suspect that Kosovo Albanians did the same thing (all detonations are
      close
      in villages and small cities) and, if they were surrounded by Yugoslav
      army
      "objectives", as they were, it is clear why they run away. On my way
      to
      Serbia I was twice in Budapest, twice in Sophia, spent 30 days in
      Yugoslavia
      during the bombing, travelled all along the country tree times from
      the
      north to the south. On all occasions, Budapest and Sophia were full of
      Yugoslavs, busses were constantly living the country packed by people
      who
      were escaping the disaster. This lasted for more then two months. How
      many
      of them were displaced, all aspects of displacement taken into account?
      As I
      said, I do not believe that there were less then 1 million.
      Herr Scharping may finally be "right": about 1.5 displaced
      people,
      and two third of those probably emigrating abroad, but Yugoslavs (!),
      all
      together, including Shiptars, Serbs, Romes, Hungarians etc.
      But this is not whole explanation. Let us see about the
      "plans".
      1. When the bombing started there were strong confrontations
      between Yu-army and KLA which was, quickly, just a couple of days
      after,
      pushed to the Albanian border. This did not make many people hesitate
      what
      to do in the circumstances.
      2. KLA was encouraging, pushing, and forcing the population to
      leave the country. They even distributed red leaflets (like Albanian
      flag)
      instructing the population to go to NATO refugees camps over the
      borders.
      Brutal violence and even killing were used, when "needed".
      3. NATO, accompanied by journalists, NGOs etc, was announcing
      reception of the refugees. Many of the refugees were hoping to finish
      somewhere in California. They were filmed by the accompanying TV crews
      marching along slippery hills of Kosovo covered with massive snow
      (although
      there was no snow in Kosovo at that time of the year).
      4. In the regions of fighting Yu-army facilitated transport of
      refugees, which they found reasonable since they probably believed that
      massive exodus could stop the bombing.
      5. Yu-army could have also believed that it had all strategic
      reasons to get rid (in quite brutal military way) of potential KLA
      fighters
      behind its back and was on the search for KLA members, which further
      scared
      the population.
      6. Rare paramilitary actions from the side of the Serbs were
      reported which could have further encouraged the population to go.

      So, probably (just probably though) there was a plan, or plans:
      Serbian army believed that massive exodus would: 1. stop the bombing,
      2.
      destabilize NATO alliance, 3. bring the sides to the negotiation table,
      and
      4. permit the return of only Shiptars i.e. non-KLA population,
      excluding
      immigrants from Albania and KLA members.
      NATO planned (not probably but surely), as declared, to win
      militarily, which required: 1. that all Albanians abandon Kosovo
      (temporarily), 2. carpet-bombing of Yugoslav army in Kosovo, and 3.
      repetition of "Hiroshima" strategy, destruction of one or more Serbian
      cities, which would force Serbian army to surrender.
      As we know now, both "plans" did not work. The moment is
      difficult
      since European politicians have to justify something they cannot
      justify,
      and which could be "justified" only if the plan worked. Serbian position
      is
      considerably better since they can show that the population ran away in
      even
      bigger numbers from the regions (in Serbia proper) where only one
      factor,
      NATO bombing, was at work, without the Serbian army facilitating exodus,
      and
      without armed conflicts with KLA forces.
      These are of course, speculations. Only sure thing which would
      stand all
      challenges is that nobody, just nobody - except pore population - did
      not
      sincerely want that the Kosovo Albanians stay at their homes, and this
      was
      clearly shown by the NATO, International community behaviour, KLA,
      Serbian
      forces, journalists, NGOs. Why should they stay then?
      Justifying the exodus will mean now showing that the situation
      in
      Kosovo prior to the bombing justified bombing. The OSCE Report from
      October
      last year is a document of reference. Unfortunately, the vagueness of
      the
      OSCE Report, particularly of its first part (which speaks of what
      happened
      before bombing), does not support the argument. In addition, the Racak
      Incident, being the main and only "clear-cut" Serbian crime cited in
      the
      first part of the Report, is shown now to be a set-up. This is
      disappointing. Since the Racak Incident proved to be no "incident",
      European
      politicians are trying a well-known maneuver, "ignoratio elenhi" - to
      change the thesis, forgetting Racak Incident and referring only to the
      Serbian "plan" to chase all Albanians over the frontiers. Unfortunately
      this leads even further into the logical labyrinth - they are namely
      trying
      to use a typical "post hoc ergo ante hoc" argument i.e., maintain that
      the
      result produced its cause. "Since there were 1.5 million refugees, to
      achieve this the Serbs must have had a plan", meaning they were bombed
      because of that "plan". You are puzzled? They are confident. To prove
      the
      thesis, requires not only a political skills of excellence, but also
      quite
      vicious mind, and they do not doubt in their capacities. If the idea is
      to
      justify NATO bombing of Yugoslavia then, the justification had to be
      look
      for in post hoc events since, they certainly know that, there is not
      much to
      find in propter hoc events. Understood?
      We will take the liberty of reminding Herr Scharping that the
      humanitarian situation in Kosovo pre NATO bombing was taken by the
      "international community" to be critical and this was the basis for the
      decision to break International Law (not entirely though, some articles
      were spared), go far beyond the humanitarian objectives (in order to
      achieve a "final solution") and impose the Rambouillet ultimatum, which
      meant (Annex B) partial occupation of Yugoslavia by the NATO forces
      and, in
      two years, the secession of Kosovo, following a referendum of Kosovo
      Albanians. Responsible for the critical humanitarian situation were, we
      are
      told, Serbian police forces and militaries. We are not told that those
      Serbian forces were there to oppose imported Albanian armed secession,
      the
      long process which for more then half of the century could not attract
      the
      rural Albanian population of Kosovo. This was possible (Western
      intelligence help included) only when illegal immigration from
      neighboring
      Albania reached a critical level, when Pristina university produced
      enough
      indoctrinated intellectuals who become the main revolutionary force,
      and
      finally, when the vertical hierarchy of the communist regime dissolved.
      As
      in the other regions of Yugoslavia, local powers understood well that
      their
      ambitions could only be achieved inside some previously imposed
      frontiers.
      Bosnia and Herzegovina was a problem, being very unhomogeneous. The
      relative
      Muslim majority had to be helped by the International community to
      impose
      its power and, following ethnic cleansing, achieve a homogenous
      territory.
      Kosovo was in that respect a simple problem. For whom, we may
      ask.
      The results of that turmoil will tell us. If we would, in the end, want
      to
      know what a politician thinks, not listening to what he declares but
      seeing
      what he does, we would have to conclude the following. It was desired
      that
      the Serbs be ethnically cleansed and ethnic (and by definition unjust)
      states be established in the Balkans, that the NATO forces establish a
      stronghold in the Balkans (the two military bases, in Macedonia and
      Kosovo,
      are not meant as a balance for dangerous Serbia, of course, but have a
      much
      more ambitious purpose). Etc. Who was responsible for the humanitarian
      crisis in Kosovo was not really important, as clearly the best possible
      solution for those people living there was not to be even considered.
      That
      was not the real problem for our politicians, they knew what they were
      doing
      and everything was, no doubt, done with a clear objective in mind. They
      will
      show us, one day, what is it; I do not worry about this.
      What troubles me is that we, staying quiet, let them believe
      that we not only do not see what they do, but also do not hear what they
      say. They might even wary how the demagogy is going to work if we do not
      listen to them. Let us reassure them that we did not overhear that they
      shamelessly, in their power delirium, misuse what is sacred - the wisdom
      of
      antiquity. Unfortunately, this time this is not a coherent political
      game.
      The power-corrupted are finally exposing to us their weak points: their
      simple and miserable ignorance, and this is, WE know it, a dangerous
      thing.
      I was told a long time ago that in some ancient times, when
      people
      discovered the power of syllogism of Aristotle, it was permitted to
      execute
      those who pretended to be wise but did not know syllogism. Indeed, here
      we
      just had one, fallacious, syllogism.
      J'accuse? Non. Pourtant, J'attend...

      (http://www.chroniclesmagazine.org/NewsRoundUp)



      “OPERATION HORSESHOE”: KOSOVO FORGERY
      REVEALED

      The eminent German daily Frankfuhrter Rundshau reported a fortnight ago
      that Bulgarian and
      German secret services had forged a “secret Serb plan” that
      was used as
      justification for NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia last year
      (“General bezweifelt Existenz
      des serbischen Kriegskonzepts,” March 21). The plan, code-named
      “Horseshoe,” purported to prove that the Serbs had planned
      ethnic cleansing of
      Kosovo Albanians well before the NATO bombing campaign. The German paper
      quoted Heinz
      Loquai, a retired Bundeswehr brigadier general, who says that the
      “plan” was no
      more than an intelligence assessment written in Sofia and subsequently
      embellished in Bonn.

      But during the NATO war “Horseshoe” was given top billing.
      It was first revealed
      by Joschka Fischer, the German foreign minister, on April 6 last year,
      almost two weeks after
      bombing had started. Two days later, on April 8, 1999 it was mentioned
      again at a press
      conference by the Bundeswehr Inspector-General Hans-Peter von Kierbach.
      The general claimed
      that this document provided evidence that Belgrade wanted to liquidate
      the KLA “even if
      that would mean extermination of the Albanians in Kosovo.”

      Then “Horseshoe” crossed the Atlantic. On April 15 it was
      invoked by William Pfaff
      in the International Herald Tribune in support of his claim that it
      would be “immoral”
      to stop the bombing. Pfaff treated “Horseshoe” as a given
      fact:

      Mr. Milosevic and his government are attempting to solve their Kosovo
      problem by producing a
      basic demographic change in the province through deporting its Albanian
      population, the
      overwhelming majority. According to German government sources, this
      program for purging
      Kosovo of its Albanian population was prepared at the end of last year
      under the code name
      “Horseshoe.” … Horseshoe was designed to produce a
      permanent solution,
      and was launched even before the Rambouillet discussions in February,
      which the Serbian
      leadership did not take seriously.

      On April 24, 1999, Bulgarian Prime Minister Kostov also quoted the
      “Horseshoe” to
      justify the pending Bulgarian collaboration with NATO: “Operation
      ‘Horseshoe’ began on February 26 and aimed at two things: to
      exterminate the KLA
      and to turn Kosovo into a desert.” It was subsequently used by a
      whole host of NATO
      apologists, and most recently by State Department’s James Rubin
      only two weeks ago.

      But in Europe it is now common knowledge that Operation Horseshoe was
      yet another Kosovo
      Lie. On April 2 The Sunday Times of London followed the Rundschau story
      up with a
      comprehensive and conclusive report (“Serbian ethnic cleansing
      scare was a fake, says
      general,” by John Goetz in Berlin and Tom Walker):

      Horseshoe - or "Potkova", as the Germans said it was known in Belgrade -
      became a staple of
      Nato briefings. It was presented as proof that President Slobodan
      Milosevic of Yugoslavia had
      long planned the expulsion of Albanians. James Rubin, the American state
      department spokesman,
      cited it only last week to justify Nato's bombardment. However, Heinz
      Loquai, a retired brigadier
      general, has claimed in a new book on the war that the plan was
      fabricated from run-of-the-mill
      Bulgarian intelligence reports. Loquai, who now works for the
      Organisation for Security and
      Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), has accused Rudolf Scharping, the German
      defence minister, of
      obscuring the origins of Operation Horseshoe. “The facts to
      support its existence are at
      best terribly meagre,” he told The Sunday Times. “I have
      come to the conclusion
      that no such operation ever existed. The criticism of the war, which had
      grown into a fire that was
      almost out of control, was completely extinguished by Operation
      Horseshoe.”

      Loquai claims that the German defense ministry turned a vague report
      from Sofia into a "plan", and
      even coined the name Horseshoe.

      But this eagerness to embellish it in order to produce a convincing
      forgery resulted in the
      fundamental flaw: the Germans named the operation “Potkova,”
      which is the
      CROATIAN word for horseshoe. The Serbian for horseshoe is Potkovica. It
      is a bit like claiming
      that a secret IRA document was called “Operation
      Londonderry” –
      impossible by definition. “A state prosecutor would never think of
      going to trial with the
      amount of evidence available to the German defense ministry,” said
      General Loquai. But
      how about Carla Ponte? “Horseshoe” is now proven to be a
      lie, but it may yet be
      used to indict a few more Serbs by the “tribunal” at The
      Hague.

      --------- COORDINAMENTO ROMANO PER LA JUGOSLAVIA -----------
      RIMSKI SAVEZ ZA JUGOSLAVIJU
      e-mail: crj@... - URL: http://marx2001.org/crj
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